|Top Technology News -- ScienceDaily
Tue, 24 Apr 2018 02:34:02 EDT
Applying network analysis to natural history
Mon, 23 Apr 2018 15:51:04 EDT
By using network analysis to search for communities of marine life in the fossil records of the Paleobiology Database, biologists were able to quantify the ecological impacts of major events like mass extinctions and may help us anticipate the consequences of a 'sixth mass extinction.'
Swirling liquids work similarly to bitcoin
Mon, 23 Apr 2018 15:50:51 EDT
The physics involved with stirring a liquid operate the same way as the mathematical functions that secure digital information. This parallel could help in developing even more secure ways of protecting digital information.
Paint job transforms walls into sensors, interactive surfaces
Mon, 23 Apr 2018 13:50:46 EDT
Walls are what they are -- big, dull dividers. With a few applications of conductive paint and some electronics, however, walls can become smart infrastructure that sense human touch, and detect things like gestures and when appliances are used. Researchers found that they could transform dumb walls into smart walls at relatively low cost using simple tools and techniques, such as a paint roller.
Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy makes a window into the nanoscale
Mon, 23 Apr 2018 13:50:40 EDT
From energy materials to disease diagnostics, new microscopy techniques can provide more nuanced insight. Researchers first need to understand the effects of radiation on samples, which is possible with a new device developed for holding tightly sealed liquid cell samples for transmission electron microscopy.
Guns used in cross-border crimes originate from states with more lax laws
Mon, 23 Apr 2018 12:51:17 EDT
Opponents of gun control have frequently pointed to high rates of gun violence in cities such as Chicago to argue that strong state gun control laws are not effective. But guns used in states with stricter gun laws typically flow from states with weaker laws, according to a new study.
Face recognition for galaxies: Artificial intelligence brings new tools to astronomy
Mon, 23 Apr 2018 12:51:15 EDT
A machine learning method called 'deep learning,' which has been widely used in face recognition and other image- and speech-recognition applications, has shown promise in helping astronomers analyze images of galaxies and understand how they form and evolve. In a new study, researchers used computer simulations of galaxy formation to train a deep learning algorithm, which then proved surprisingly good at analyzing images of galaxies from the Hubble Space Telescope.
Playing quantum catch in new research
Mon, 23 Apr 2018 12:51:12 EDT
Researchers 'pitch' a qubit -- a tiny bit of quantum data -- from one physical point in a microwave cavity to a separate point in a different cavity. It is the first time an end-to-end quantum transmission has been done on demand.
New control strategy helps reap maximum power from wind farms
Mon, 23 Apr 2018 12:50:50 EDT
Researchers have developed a way to extract more power from the wind. The researchers used supercomputers at the Texas Advanced Computing Center to filter out the effects of turbulence and apply control algorithms that can better manage the operation of wind farms. The approach has the potential to increase wind power generation by 6-7 percent with a estimated increase in revenue of more than $600 million nationwide.
Neutrons provide insights into increased performance for hybrid perovskite solar cells
Mon, 23 Apr 2018 12:50:44 EDT
Neutron scattering has revealed, in real time, the fundamental mechanisms behind the conversion of sunlight into energy in hybrid perovskite materials. A better understanding of this behavior will enable manufacturers to design solar cells with significantly increased efficiency.
Galaxies grow bigger and puffier as they age
Mon, 23 Apr 2018 12:50:41 EDT
A new international study has found that galaxies grow bigger and puffier as they age.
Organic solar cells reach record efficiency, benchmark for commercialization
Mon, 23 Apr 2018 11:08:13 EDT
In an advance that makes a more flexible, inexpensive type of solar cell commercially viable, researchers have demonstrated organic solar cells that can achieve 15 percent efficiency.
Scientists create innovative new 'green' concrete using graphene
Mon, 23 Apr 2018 11:07:21 EDT
A new greener, stronger and more durable concrete that is made using the wonder-material graphene could revolutionise the construction industry.
Attosecond physics: Molecules brilliantly illuminated
Mon, 23 Apr 2018 11:07:15 EDT
A new high-power laser system generates ultrashort pulses of light covering a large share of the mid-infrared spectrum.
Saving a penalty: How science helps predict soccer scores
Mon, 23 Apr 2018 11:02:22 EDT
Ever since the first penalty kicks were introduced to soccer in 1891, experts, coaches and supporters have puzzled over the question of why some goalkeepers are better at stopping penalties than others. A new review now demonstrates that simply learning which corner to dive to is not enough. It is important that goalkeepers also perfectly calculate their dive to get to the corner at the right time.
Nanomedicine: Drugs can be made 'smarter'
Mon, 23 Apr 2018 08:54:23 EDT
A new method has been developed to make drugs 'smarter' using nanotechnology so pharmacologists can tailor their drugs to more accurately target an area on the body, such as a cancer tumor.
New study shows wearable technology also contributes to distracted driving
Mon, 23 Apr 2018 08:53:59 EDT
A new study examines wearable technology and whether it affects drivers' concentration. Scientists have discovered that while a driver texting with a wearable device can marginally reduce their level of distraction, it ultimately makes texting while driving just as dangerous as with an ordinary cell phone.
How social networking sites may discriminate against women
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 17:06:21 EDT
Using the photo-sharing site Instagram as a test case, researchers demonstrate how two common recommendation algorithms amplify a network effect known as homophily in which similar or like-minded people cluster together. They further show how algorithms turned loose on a network with homophily effectively make women less visible; they found that the women in their dataset, whose photos were slightly less likely to be 'liked' or commented on, became even less popular once recommendation algorithms were introduced.
Path to a new era of microelectronics
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 17:05:51 EDT
A new microchip technology capable of optically transferring data could solve a severe bottleneck in current devices by speeding data transfer and reducing energy consumption by orders of magnitude, according to a new article.
Students learn Italian playing Assassin's Creed video game
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 13:14:36 EDT
A professor has used video games to teach Italian, allowing his students to master two semesters worth of language acquisition through one intensive class for students new to the Italian language.
Rare earth magnet recycling is a grind -- this new process takes a simpler approach
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 12:29:04 EDT
A new recycling process turns discarded hard disk drive magnets into new magnet material in a few steps, and tackles both the economic and environmental issues typically associated with mining e-waste for valuable materials.
Structured light and nanomaterials open new ways to tailor light at the nanoscale
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 12:28:54 EDT
New research has shown that carefully structured light and matching arrangements of metal nanostructures can be combined to alter the properties of the generated light at the nanometer scale. The teams have shown that the efficiency of nonlinear optical fields generated from the oligomers is strongly influenced by how the constituents of the oligomer constituents are illuminated by structured light.
Medical chemists discover peptic ulcer treatment metallodrug effective in 'taming' superbugs
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 12:28:44 EDT
A novel solution to antimicrobial resistance -- medical chemists discover peptic ulcer treatment metallodrug effective in 'taming' superbugs.
Graphene sets a new record on squeezing light to one atom
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 12:28:39 EDT
Researchers reach the ultimate level of light confinement -- the space of one atom. This will pave the way to ultra-small optical switches, detectors and sensors.
Smarter fiber data transmission doubles capacity to the home
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 12:28:36 EDT
Researchers have developed data transmission techniques that can double or even triple the data transmission capacity of existing fiber to the home connections. Enjoying this increase requires you to upgrade your modem. But even if only your neighbors do, you can get a higher data capacity as well.
New theory shows how strain makes for better catalysts
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 12:28:19 EDT
A new theory of how compression and tension can affect the reactivity of metal catalysts could be helpful in designing new and better catalysts.
For heavy lifting, use exoskeletons with caution
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 12:28:16 EDT
You can wear an exoskeleton, but it won't turn you into a superhero. Researchers report that that a commercially available exoskeleton relieved stress on the arms just as it was supposed to -- but it increased stress on the back by more than 50 percent.
Wood formation model to fuel progress in bioenergy, paper, new applications
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 12:28:04 EDT
Need stronger timber, better biofuels or new sources of green chemicals? A systems biology model developed over decades of research will accelerate progress in engineering trees for specific needs.
Molecular movement analysis with accurate software
Fri, 20 Apr 2018 09:03:51 EDT
The software 'PyFRAP' is an accurate and reliable tool for the analysis of molecular movement, employing numerical simulations rather than simplified assumptions.
New 'brain health index' can predict how well patients will do after stroke
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 23:38:31 EDT
A new computer program can assess whole brain deterioration and help predict cognitive function after stroke up to ten times more accurately than current methods.
Clear as mud: Desiccation cracks help reveal the shape of water on Mars
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 17:26:58 EDT
As Curiosity rover marches across Mars, the red planet's watery past comes into clearer focus.
Integrating optical components into existing chip designs
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 17:26:00 EDT
A new technique can assemble optical and electronic components separately on the surface of a computer chip, enabling the addition of optical components to existing chips with little design modification.
Chip-based blood test for multiple myeloma could make bone biopsies a relic of the past
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 14:15:38 EDT
A new research effort has resulted in a low-cost, reliable blood test that uses a small plastic chip about the size of a credit card that can deliver the same diagnostic information as a bone biopsy -- but using a simple blood draw instead.
Atoms may hum a tune from grand cosmic symphony
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 14:15:33 EDT
Researchers playing with a cloud of ultracold atoms uncovered behavior that bears a striking resemblance to the universe in microcosm. Their work forges new connections between atomic physics and the sudden expansion of the early universe.
How to bend and stretch a diamond
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 14:15:14 EDT
Brittle diamond can turn flexible and stretchable when made into ultrafine needles, researchers at MIT and elsewhere have discovered.
New microscope captures detailed 3-D movies of cells deep within living systems
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 14:15:00 EDT
Merging lattice light sheet microscopy with adaptive optics reveals the most detailed picture yet of subcellular dynamics in multicellular organisms.
Squeezing more power out of solar cells
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 14:14:09 EDT
Physicists have published new research that could literally squeeze more power out of solar cells by physically deforming each of the crystals in the semiconductors used by photovoltaic cells.
Algorithm tool works to silence online chatroom sex predators
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:46:59 EDT
An algorithm tool developed by researchers will help law enforcement filter out and focus on sex offenders most likely to set up face-to-face meetings with child victims.
A novel way of creating gold nanoparticles in water
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:46:56 EDT
The discovery that water microdroplets can replace potentially toxic agents in the creation of gold nanoparticles and nanowires could help usher in a new era of 'green chemistry.'
Machine-learning system processes sounds like humans do
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:11:06 EDT
Using a machine-learning system known as a deep neural network, researchers have created the first model that can replicate human performance on auditory tasks such as identifying a musical genre. This type of model can shed light on how the human brain may be performing the same tasks.
Electrochemical tuning of single layer materials relies on defects
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:10:10 EDT
Perfection is not everything, according to an international team of researchers whose 2-D materials study shows that defects can enhance a material's physical, electrochemical, magnetic, energy and catalytic properties.
Porous salts for fuel cells
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:10:07 EDT
Scientists have developed a new class of crystalline porous organic salts with high proton conductivity for applications such as proton-exchange membranes for fuel cells.
Far-red fluorescent silk can kill harmful bacteria as biomedical and environmental remedy
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:10:03 EDT
A silk hybrid material attacks bacteria when illuminated by a green light, thanks to a far-red fluorescent protein researchers transferred to its genetic makeup.
GLUT5 fluorescent probe fingerprints cancer cells
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:09:33 EDT
Getting the results of a cancer biopsy can take up to two weeks. What if it could happen in 10 minutes? In two new papers, a team of chemists and engineers lay the groundwork for cancer detection and diagnostics based on a fluorescent GLUT5 probe. Documented in the new research, a cancer's type and malignancy changes the GLUT5 activity in a cell, creating a detectable 'fingerprint' of cancer.
Vast stellar nursery of Lagoon Nebula
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:09:30 EDT
This colorful cloud of glowing interstellar gas is just a tiny part of the Lagoon Nebula, a vast stellar nursery. This nebula is a region full of intense activity, with fierce winds from hot stars, swirling chimneys of gas, and energetic star formation all embedded within a hazy labyrinth of gas and dust.
Spider silk key to new bone-fixing composite
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:09:15 EDT
Researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.
Researchers achieve HD video streaming at 10,000 times lower power
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:09:13 EDT
Engineers have developed a new HD video streaming method that doesn't need to be plugged in. Their prototype skips power-hungry components and has something else, like a smartphone, process the video instead.
For nuclear weapons reduction, a way to verify without revealing
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:09:10 EDT
Researchers have found a new way of verifying nuclear weapons reduction agreements without revealing secret information, using a physical cryptographic key and nuclear resonant phenomena.
Homemade microscope reveals how a cancer-causing virus clings to our DNA
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:09:08 EDT
Using a homemade, high-tech microscope, scientists have revealed how a cancer-causing virus anchors itself to our DNA. That discovery could pave the way for doctors to cure incurable diseases by flushing out viruses, including HPV and Epstein-Barr, that now permanently embed themselves in our cells.
Energy conversion: Optical 'overtones' for solar cells
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 13:00:51 EDT
Scientists have found a new effect regarding the optical excitation of charge carriers in a solar semiconductor. It could facilitate the utilization of infrared light, which is normally lost in solar devices.
NASA planet hunter on its way to orbit
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 10:57:26 EDT
NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) launched on the first-of-its-kind mission to find worlds beyond our solar system, including some that could support life. Researchers will use spectroscopy to determine a planet's mass, density and atmospheric composition. Water, and other key molecules, in its atmosphere can give us hints about a planets' capacity to harbor life.
Scientists identify unique binding mechanism of antifreeze molecule
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 10:02:22 EDT
Antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs), produced by polar fishes, are known as the inhibitor of ice growing while its mechanism has remained a mystery. Using molecular simulations, scientists have identified a unique molecular binding mechanism that helps keep non-mammalian creatures in sub-zero temperatures from freezing. The finding has potential future applications for better preserving food and biological tissue under extreme temperatures.
Diamond-like carbon is formed differently to what was believed -- machine learning enables development of new model
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 10:02:16 EDT
Researchers have made a significant breakthrough in computational science by combining atomic-level modelling and machine learning. For the first time, the method has been used to realistically model how an amorphous material is formed at the atomic level: that is, a material that does not have a regular crystalline structure. The approach is expected to have impact on the research of many other materials.
Anyone can be an innovator, research finds
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 10:01:51 EDT
Innovators aren't born, but they can be made, a recent study suggests. Researchers created a contest -- for engineering and computer science students -- designed to answer the question: Are persuaded innovators less capable than those who naturally gravitate to innovative activities?
Salt boosts creation of 2-D materials
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 10:01:48 EDT
Salt simplifies the process of making novel two-dimensional materials. Recent simulations by scientists show how labs were able to make dozens of 2-D compounds, including many novel materials.
Algorithms reveal changes in stereotypes
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 10:01:46 EDT
New research shows that, over the past century, linguistic changes in gender and ethnic stereotypes correlated with major social movements and demographic changes in the US Census data.
Researchers find new way of exploring the afterglow from the Big Bang
Thu, 19 Apr 2018 10:01:14 EDT
Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. The new results predict the maximum bandwidth of the universe, which is the maximum speed at which any change can occur in the universe.
Optimizing space travel efficiency
Wed, 18 Apr 2018 19:43:07 EDT
Sending a human into space and doing it efficiently presents a galaxy of challenges. Scientists have explored ways to integrate the logistics of space travel by looking at a campaign of lunar missions, spacecraft design, and conducting research, to create a framework to optimize fuel and other resources.
Peptide induces chirality evolution in a single gold nanoparticle
Wed, 18 Apr 2018 16:27:51 EDT
Scientists have created a synthesis method to make optically active and chiral gold nanoparticles using amino acids and peptides for the first time. Many chemicals significant to life have mirror-imaged twins and such characteristics are conventionally called as chirality. This study describes how the chirality, typically observed in organic molecules, can be extended to three-dimensional metallic nanostructures. The research will be published in Nature and featured in its cover.
Meteorite diamonds tell of a lost planet
Wed, 18 Apr 2018 14:48:10 EDT
Scientists have examined a slice from a meteorite that contains large diamonds formed at high pressure. The study shows that the parent body from which the meteorite came was a planetary embryo of a size between Mercury and Mars.
Battery's hidden layer revealed
Wed, 18 Apr 2018 14:47:30 EDT
An international team makes breakthrough in understanding the chemistry of the microscopically thin layer that forms between the liquid electrolyte and solid electrode in lithium-ion batteries. The results are being used in improving the layer and better predicting battery lifetime.