|Top Technology News -- ScienceDaily
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 18:03:03 EDT
Giant X-ray 'chimneys' are exhaust vents for vast energies produced at Milky Way's center
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 16:49:12 EDT
At the center of our galaxy, where an enormous black hole blasts out energy as it chows down on interstellar detritus while neighboring stars burst to life and explode. astronomers have discovered two exhaust channels -- dubbed the 'galactic center chimneys' -- that appear to funnel matter and energy away from the cosmic fireworks.
Brain-inspired AI inspires insights about the brain (and vice versa)
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 14:11:11 EDT
Researchers have described the results of experiments that used artificial neural networks to predict with greater accuracy than ever before how different areas in the brain respond to specific words. The work employed a type of recurrent neural network called long short-term memory (LSTM) that includes in its calculations the relationships of each word to what came before to better preserve context.
Toilet seat that detects congestive heart failure getting ready to begin commercialization
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 14:10:39 EDT
A toilet-seat based cardiovascular monitoring system aims to lower the hospital readmission rates of patients with congestive heart failure.
Robotic 'gray goo'
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 14:10:24 EDT
Researchers have demonstrated for the first time a way to make a robot composed of many loosely coupled components, or 'particles.' Unlike swarm or modular robots, each component is simple, and has no individual address or identity. In their system, which the researchers call a 'particle robot,' each particle can perform only uniform volumetric oscillations (slightly expanding and contracting), but cannot move independently.
The best topological conductor yet: Spiraling crystal is the key to exotic discovery
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 14:10:14 EDT
A team of researchers has discovered the strongest topological conductor yet, in the form of thin crystal samples that have a spiral-staircase structure.
Computer scientists create reprogrammable molecular computing system
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 14:05:48 EDT
Researchers have designed self-assembling DNA molecules with unprecedented reprogrammability.
Visualizing better cancer treatment
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 12:06:05 EDT
Researchers have engineered nanoscale protein micelles capable of both delivering chemotherapeutic drugs and of being tracked by MRI. The innovation allows researchers to administer therapy while noninvasively monitoring the therapeutic progress and drastically reducing the need for surgical intervention. They biosynthesized a protein block copolymer containing amino acid building blocks with fluorinated thermoresponsive assembled protein (F-TRAP), which assembles into a nanoscale micelle with the noteworthy abilities.
Supercomputer simulations shed light on how liquid drops combine
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 11:06:27 EDT
High performance computing has revealed in detail how liquid droplets combine, in a development with applications such as improving 3D printing technologies or the forecasting of thunderstorms.
Human microbiome metabolites tip the scale in intestinal E. coli infections
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 10:21:07 EDT
A multi-disciplinary team of biological engineers, microbiologists, and systems biologists, whose goal it is to uncover the causes of tolerance to infection exhibited by certain individuals or species, has now succeeded in modeling infection of human colon with EHEC in vitro using a microfluidic Organ-on-a-Chip (Organ Chip) culture device.
Cities rethink parking as ride-hailing grows and parking revenue declines
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 10:20:22 EDT
A new study found that people who use ride-hailing are willing to pay more to avoid driving, including the stress and cost of parking. As a result, cities are seeing a reduction in parking demand, particularly at restaurants and bars, event venues, and airports. That reduction could push cities to reconsider and replace parking infrastructure, leading to more vibrant cities and less dependency on cars.
Mathematicians reveal secret to human sperm's swimming prowess
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 10:20:14 EDT
Researchers have discovered that a reinforcing outer-layer which coats the tails of human sperm is what gives them the strength to make the powerful rhythmic strokes needed to break through the cervical mucus barrier.
Measuring impact of drought on groundwater resources from space
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 10:20:07 EDT
A team of scientists has been using the latest space technology, combined with ground measurements, to assess the health of one of the nation's most important sources of underground water, a large aquifer system located in California's San Joaquin Valley.
New measurement method for radioactive methane
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 10:19:54 EDT
Researchers have made a first step towards creating a precise measuring device for radioactive methane.
Want in on nanotechnology? Capitalize on collaborative environments
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 10:19:52 EDT
Patent law experts demonstrate that private-public partnerships lead to promising innovation output measured in patents. Collaborations between private entities and public institutions have the potential to improve technology transfer in nanotechnology. Nations entering the nano-space can capitalize on collaborative environments, developing frameworks and close institutional networks between entities active in nanotechnology.
Seeing through food and drug fakes and frauds
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 10:19:33 EDT
A simple new technique developed by engineers can detect fake drugs from a video taken as the sample undergoes a disturbance. Called 'chronoprinting,' the technology requires only a few relatively inexpensive pieces of equipment and free software to accurately distinguish pure from inferior food and medicines.
Fish-inspired material changes color using nanocolumns
Wed, 20 Mar 2019 10:19:31 EDT
Inspired by the flashing colors of the neon tetra fish, researchers have developed a technique for changing the color of a material by manipulating the orientation of nanostructured columns in the material.
The rise and fall of Ziggy star formation and the rich dust from ancient stars
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 16:35:29 EDT
Researchers have detected a radio signal from abundant interstellar dust in MACS0416_Y1, a galaxy 13.2 billion light-years away in the constellation Eridanus. Standard models can't explain this much dust in a galaxy this young, forcing us to rethink the history of star formation. Researchers now think MACS0416_Y1 experienced staggered star formation with two intense starburst periods 300 million and 600 million years after the Big Bang with a quiet phase in between.
Weird, wild gravity of asteroid Bennu
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 14:23:15 EDT
New research is revealing the Alice in Wonderland-like physics that govern gravity near the surface of the asteroid Bennu.
Water-bearing minerals on asteroid Bennu
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 13:51:14 EDT
Astronomers have discovered evidence of abundant water-bearing minerals on the surface of the near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu. Using early spectral data from NASA's OSIRIS-REx spacecraft orbiting the asteroid, the team identified infrared properties similar to those in a type of meteorite called carbonaceous chondrites.
Hayabusa2 probes asteroid Ryugu for secrets
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 12:59:04 EDT
The first data received from the Hayabusa2 spacecraft in orbit of asteroid Ryugu helps space scientists explore conditions in the early solar system. The space probe gathered vast amounts of images and other data which gives researchers clues about Ryugu's history, such as how it may have formed from a larger parent body. These details in turn allow researchers to better estimate quantities and types of materials essential for life that were present as Earth formed.
NASA's Fermi Satellite clocks 'cannonball' pulsar speeding through space
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 12:42:25 EDT
Astronomers have found a runaway pulsar hurtling through space at nearly 2.5 million miles an hour -- so fast it could travel the distance between Earth and the Moon in just 6 minutes.
Diattenuation imaging: Promising imaging technique for brain research
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 12:18:23 EDT
A new imaging method provides structural information about brain tissue that was previously difficult to access. Diattenuation imaging allows researchers to differentiate, e.g., regions with many thin nerve fibers from regions with few thick nerve fibers. With current imaging methods, these tissue types cannot easily be distinguished.
Speeding the development of fusion power to create unlimited energy on Earth
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 12:18:11 EDT
A detailed examination of the challenges and tradeoffs in the development of a compact fusion facility with high-temperature superconducting magnets.
Sensor created to detect dopamine, brain disorders, in seconds
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 12:17:39 EDT
Using nanotechnology, researchers have developed the first rapid detector for dopamine, a chemical that is believed to play a role in various diseases such as Parkinson's, depression and some cancers.
Cost-effective method for hydrogen fuel production process
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 12:17:37 EDT
Researchers have identified an inexpensive way to boost the efficiency of a process used to create hydrogen, a clean, renewable fuel.
Making xylitol and cellulose nanofibers from paper paste
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 10:07:57 EDT
The ecological bio-production of xylitol and cellulose nanofibers from material produced by the paper industry has been achieved. This discovery could contribute to the development of a greener and more sustainable society.
Computer program developed to find 'leakage' in quantum computers
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 10:07:38 EDT
A new computer program that spots when information in a quantum computer is escaping to unwanted states will give users of this promising technology the ability to check its reliability without any technical knowledge for the first time.
Carbon monoxide detectors could warn of extraterrestrial life
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 10:07:32 EDT
Scientists have used computer models of chemistry in the biosphere and atmosphere to identify two intriguing scenarios in which carbon monoxide readily accumulates in the atmospheres of living planets. The models show that relatively high amounts of carbon monoxide are compatible with life and should not automatically rule out the possibility of life on some planets.
A new first: Scientists mimic nature's self-affinity using computer simulations
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 09:20:19 EDT
For the first time, researchers have simulated the process of surface roughness creation. This is a step forward in understanding the emergence of fractal characteristic of rough surfaces on many scales ranging from atomic to geological scales. The perspectives of their findings are far reaching. Controlling surface roughness is essential to the performance and durability of virtually all engineering applications. It may even be a step forward in earthquake prediction.
Smarter automatic defibrillator
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 09:20:16 EDT
Automatic implantable cardiac defibrillators (AICDs) deliver shocks to the heart to correct arrythmias. They do so based on electrocardiogram data. Researchers have now shown that an AICD can be programmed to also measure stroke volume -- the amount of blood pumped out of the heart. The hope is that this will enable the AICDs to deliver shocks only when needed.
Levitating objects with light
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 09:20:09 EDT
Specially designed materials enable objects of different sizes to be levitated and manipulated with light, thanks to new research.
Heading towards a tsunami of light
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 08:39:25 EDT
Researchers have proposed a way to create a completely new source of radiation. Ultra-intense light pulses consist of the motion of a single wave and can be described as a tsunami of light. The strong wave can be used to study interactions between matter and light in a unique way.
Superbugs have colonized the International Space Station -- but there's a silver lining
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 08:39:23 EDT
Researchers have taken another small step towards deep space exploration, by testing a new silver- and ruthenium-based antimicrobial coating aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Their study shows that the AGXX® dramatically reduced the number of bacteria on contamination-prone surfaces -- and could help protect future astronauts beyond the moon and Mars.
Bright skies for plant-based jet fuels
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 08:39:20 EDT
With an estimated daily fuel demand of more than 5 million barrels per day, the global aviation sector is incredibly energy-intensive and almost entirely reliant on petroleum-based fuels. However, a new analysis shows that sustainable plant-based bio-jet fuels could provide a competitive alternative to conventional fuels if current development and scale-up initiatives continue to push ahead successfully.
From foam to bone: Plant cellulose can pave the way for healthy bone implants
Tue, 19 Mar 2019 08:39:17 EDT
Researchers have developed what could be the bone implant material of the future: an airy, foamlike substance from plant cellulose that can be injected into the body and provide scaffolding for the growth of new bone.
Grow a better jawbone in your ribs
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 15:17:44 EDT
Researchers have developed a technique to grow custom-fit bone implants to repair jawbone injuries from a patient's own rib.
Researchers create hydrogen fuel from seawater
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 15:17:26 EDT
Splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen presents an alternative to fossil fuels, but purified water is a precious resource. A team has now developed a way to harness seawater -- Earth's most abundant source -- for chemical energy.
Researchers discover new material to help power electronics
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 15:17:21 EDT
Scientists have discovered a way to simplify how electronic devices use those electrons -- using a material that can serve dual roles in electronics, where historically multiple materials have been necessary.
Semimetals are high conductors
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 14:11:39 EDT
Researchers have measured high conductivity in very thin layers of niobium arsenide, a type of material called a Weyl semimetal. The material has about three times the conductivity of copper at room temperature.
Google research shows how AI can make ophthalmologists more effective
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 14:11:35 EDT
As artificial intelligence continues to evolve, diagnosing disease faster and potentially with greater accuracy than physicians, some have suggested that technology may soon replace tasks that physicians currently perform. But a new study shows that physicians and algorithms working together are more effective than either alone.
Molecular motors run in unison in a metal-organic framework
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 14:11:30 EDT
For molecular motors to be exploited effectively, they need to be able to operate in unison. However, integrating billions of these nanometre-sized motors into a single system, and getting them to operate in unison has proved to be quite a challenge. Organic chemists have now succeeded in integrating numerous unidirectional light-driven rotary motors into a metal-organic framework (a solid material with a 3D cage-like structure).
Materials could delay frost up to 300 times longer than existing anti-icing coatings
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 13:26:57 EDT
Researchers have described several unique properties of materials known as phase-switching liquids, or PSLs, that hold promise as next-generation anti-icing materials. PSLs can delay ice and frost formation up to 300 times longer than state-of-the-art coatings being developed in laboratories.
Advances point the way to smaller, safer batteries
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 13:26:01 EDT
New research advances the design of solid-state batteries, a technology that is inherently safer and more energy-dense than today's lithium-ion batteries, which rely on flammable liquid electrolytes for fast transfer of chemical energy stored in molecular bonds to electricity. By starting with liquid electrolytes and then transforming them into solid polymers inside the electrochemical cell, the researchers take advantage of both liquid and solid properties to overcome key limitations in current battery designs.
On-chip, electronically tunable frequency comb
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 13:25:51 EDT
Now, researchers have developed an integrated, on-chip frequency comb that is efficient, stable and highly controllable with microwaves.
Spiraling giants: Witnessing the birth of a massive binary star system
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 12:10:55 EDT
Scientists have made observations of a molecular cloud that is collapsing to form two massive protostars that will eventually become a binary star system. The observations showed that already at this early stage, the cloud contains two objects, a massive 'primary' central star and another 'secondary' forming star, also of high mass.
Supercrystal: A hidden phase of matter created by a burst of light
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 12:10:52 EDT
'Frustration' plus a pulse of laser light resulted in a stable 'supercrystal.'
Rising global shipping traffic could lead to surge in invasive species
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 12:10:43 EDT
Rising global maritime traffic could lead to sharp increases in invasive species around the world over the next 30 years, according to a new study. The findings suggest that shipping growth will far outweigh climate change in the spread of non-indigenous pests to new environments in coming decades.
Virtual reality could improve your balance, study finds
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 11:45:50 EDT
Virtual Reality technology could become an efficient tool for older people with balance problems or for rehabilitation following injuries or illness that affect balance and movement. In a new study, researchers have studied how the human balance system is affected by watching Virtual Reality videos.
Trembling aspen leaves could save future Mars rovers
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 11:20:18 EDT
Researchers have been inspired by the unique movement of trembling aspen leaves, to devise an energy harvesting mechanism that could power weather sensors in hostile environments and could even be a back-up energy supply that could save and extend the life of future Mars rovers.
Long-distance quantum information exchange -- success at the nanoscale
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 11:20:10 EDT
Researchers have realized the swap of electron spins between distant quantum dots. The discovery is a step towards applications of quantum information, as the dots leave enough room for delicate control electrodes, enabling integration with traditional microelectronics and perhaps, a future quantum computer.
A laser technique proves effective to recover material designed to protect industrial products
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 11:19:47 EDT
The system has been validated for non-stick and anticorrosive coatings used in the manufacturing of a wide range of objects from car engines to kitchen utensils.
How heavy elements come about in the universe
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 11:19:45 EDT
Heavy elements are produced during stellar explosion or on the surfaces of neutron stars through the capture of hydrogen nuclei (protons). This occurs at extremely high temperatures, but at relatively low energies.
Green tech startups see boost in patents and investment when partnering with government
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 10:24:07 EDT
Collaboration between government and startups could help meet the climate challenge while growing small businesses. Findings could inform discussions on Green New Deal or any 'forward-looking policy package', say researchers.
The robots that dementia caregivers want: Robots for joy, robots for sorrow
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 10:24:05 EDT
A team of scientists spent six months co-designing robots with informal caregivers for people with dementia, such as family members. They found that caregivers wanted the robots to fulfill two major roles: support positive moments shared by caregivers and their loved ones; and lessen caregivers' emotional stress by taking on difficult tasks, such as answering repeated questions and restricting unhealthy food.
Water-resistant electronic skin with self-healing abilities created
Mon, 18 Mar 2019 10:24:00 EDT
Inspired by jellyfish, researchers have created an electronic skin that is transparent, stretchable, touch-sensitive, and repairs itself in both wet and dry conditions. The novel material has wide-ranging uses, from water-resistant touch screens to soft robots aimed at mimicking biological tissues.
Absorbable antibiotic envelope can significantly cut cardiac device infections
Sun, 17 Mar 2019 15:04:16 EDT
A research team has found that using an absorbable, antibiotic-eluting envelope when implanting cardiac devices like pacemakers and defibrillators can cut the rate of major infections by 40 percent.
Dormant viruses activate during spaceflight
Sat, 16 Mar 2019 16:22:11 EDT
Herpes viruses reactivate in more than half of crew aboard Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. While only a small proportion develop symptoms, virus reactivation rates increase with spaceflight duration and could present a significant health risk on missions to Mars and beyond.
Sweat holds most promise for noninvasive testing
Fri, 15 Mar 2019 15:55:54 EDT
Medical researchers have been creating new sensors on a wearable patch the size of a Band-Aid that stimulates sweat even when a patient is cool and resting. The sensor measures specific analytes over time that doctors can use to determine how the patient is responding to a drug treatment.
Near-perfect performance in low-cost semiconductors
Fri, 15 Mar 2019 15:55:51 EDT
Researchers redefine what it means for low-cost semiconductors, called quantum dots, to be near-perfect and find that quantum dots meet quality standards set by more expensive alternatives.
Seeing through a robot's eyes helps those with profound motor impairments
Fri, 15 Mar 2019 15:54:51 EDT
An interface system that uses augmented reality technology could help individuals with profound motor impairments operate a humanoid robot to feed themselves and perform routine personal care tasks such as scratching an itch and applying skin lotion. The web-based interface displays a 'robot's eye view' of surroundings to help users interact with the world through the machine.